There are four principle concepts upon which object oriented design and programming rest. They are:
What is Abstraction ?
Abstraction refers to the act of representing essential features without including the background details or explanations.
What is Encapsulation ?
Encapsulation is a process of binding or wrapping the data and the codes that operates on the data into a single entity. This keeps the data safe from outside interface and misuse. Objects allow procedures to be encapsulated with their data to reduce potential interference. One way to think about encapsulation is as a protective wrapper that prevents code and data from being arbitrarily accessed by other code defined outside the wrapper.
What is the difference between abstraction and encapsulation ?
Abstraction focuses on the outside view of an object (i.e. the interface) Encapsulation (information hiding) prevents clients from seeing itís inside view, where the behavior of the abstraction is implemented.
Abstraction solves the problem in the design side while Encapsulation is the Implementation.
Encapsulation is the deliverables of Abstraction. Encapsulation barely talks about grouping up your abstraction to suit the developer needs.
What is Inheritance ?
Inheritance is the process by which objects of one class acquire the properties of objects of another class.
A class that is inherited is called a superclass.
The class that does the inheriting is called a subclass.
Inheritance is done by using the keyword extends.
The two most common reasons to use inheritance are:
To promote code reuse
To use polymorphism
What is Polymorphism ?
Polymorphism is briefly described as "one interface, many implementations." Polymorphism is a characteristic of being able to assign a different meaning or usage to something in different contexts - specifically, to allow an entity such as a variable, a function, or an object to have more than one form.
How does Java implement polymorphism ?
(Inheritance, Overloading and Overriding are used to achieve Polymorphism in java).
Polymorphism manifests itself in Java in the form of multiple methods having the same name.
In some cases, multiple methods have the same name, but different formal argument lists (overloaded methods).
In other cases, multiple methods have the same name, same return type, and same formal argument list (overridden methods).
Explain the different forms of Polymorphism.
There are two types of polymorphism one is Compile time polymorphism and the other is run time polymorphism. Compile time polymorphism is method overloading. Runtime time polymorphism is done using inheritance and interface.
Note: From a practical programming viewpoint, polymorphism manifests itself in three distinct forms in Java:
Method overriding through inheritance
Method overriding through the Java interface
What is runtime polymorphism or dynamic method dispatch ?
In Java, runtime polymorphism or dynamic method dispatch is a process in which a call to an overridden method is resolved at runtime rather than at compile-time. In this process, an overridden method is called through the reference variable of a superclass. The determination of the method to be called is based on the object being referred to by the reference variable.
What is Dynamic Binding ?
Binding refers to the linking of a procedure call to the code to be executed in response to the call. Dynamic binding (also known as late binding) means that the code associated with a given procedure call is not known until the time of the call at run-time. It is associated with polymorphism and inheritance.